Thin Film Evaporation Reference

G = Graphite Crucible;
CG = Coated Graphite Crucible;
Al2O3 = Alumina Crucible;
BN = Boron Nitride Crucible;
Mo = Molybdenum Crucible;
Ta = Tantalum Crucible;
TB = TiB2;
ZB = ZrB2;
W = Tungsten;
VC = vitreous carbon;

2O 3, Ta
Element Symbol Melting Point °C Density (bulk, g/cm3) Z-ratio Temperature°C @ Vapor Pressure (Torr) Evaporation Method Crucible Boat Remarks
Aluminum Al 660 2.700 1.080 677 821 1010 eBeam (xlnt), Thermal TB, BN, ZB BN,TB
CG,W
Alloys and wets. Fill Boat 2/3.
Aluminum Oxide Al2O3 2045 3.970 0.336 -- -- 1550 eBeam (xlnt), sputter -- W n~2.7. Films hard and smooth.
Boron B 2100 2.370 0.389 1278 1548 1797 eBeam (xlnt), sputter G G Material explodes with rapid cooling.
Carbon(diamond) C Sublimes 3.520 0.220 1657 1867 2137 eBeam (xlnt), sputter -- --
Chromium Cr 1890 7.200 0.305 837 977 1157 eBeam (good), Thermal G CG, Cr rod Adheres well. High rates possible. Sublimes.
Copper Cu 1083 8.930 0.437 727 857 1017 eBeam (xlnt),Thermal  Ta,Mo,Al 2O 3 Mo Does not adhere well. Any source material.
Erbium Er 1497 9.050 0.740 650 775 930 eBeam (good), Thermal -- W, Ta --
Germanium Ge 937 5.350 0.516 812 957 1167 eBeam (xlnt) Al2O 3,
Quartz
W, G, Ta n = 4.01
Gold Au 1062 19.300 0.381 807 947 1132 eBeam (xlnt), Thermal CG,
BN,
Al 2O 3
W, Mo, Al 2O 3
May not adhere well. Films soft.
Indium In 157 7.300 0.841 487 597 742 eBeam (good) G, Al 2O3,
Mo liner
W, Mo Wets W and Cu. use Mo liner in gun.
Indium Tin Oxide In 2O 3-SnO 2 1800 6.43-7.14 -- -- -- -- eBeam (good) G W, Mo Sublimes. 90 In 20 3:10 Sn0 2 wt%.
anneal req. for transparancy and improved conductivity.
Iron Fe 1535 7.860 0.349 858 998 1180 eBeam (xlnt) BeO, Al 2O 3
W Attacks Tungsten. Use gentle preheat to outgas. Films hard, smooth.
Lead Pb 328 11.300 1.130 342 427 497 eBeam (xlnt), Thermal Quartz, Al 2O 3 W, Mo Toxic.
Nichrome IV Ni/Cr 1395 8.50 0.3258 847 987 1217 e-Beam (xlnt.) Al 2O 3, VC, BeO -- --
Nickel Ni 1453 8.910 0.331 927 1072 1262 eBeam (xlnt), Thermal Al 2O 3,
BeO,
CG
W Alloys with refractory metals. Forms smooth adherent films.
Molybdenum  Mo  2610 10.22 0.257 1592 1822 2117 Thermal (xlnt) -- -- Films hard smooth.Careful degas required.
Platinum Pt 1769 21.45 0.245 1292 1492 1747 eBeam (xlnt), Thermal CG, ThO 2 W Alloys with metals; poor adhesion; films soft
Silicon Si 1410 2.42 0.712 992 1147 1337 eBeam (fair), sputter BeO, Ta, CG W, Ta Alloys with W;
SiO produced above 4x10 -6; n = 1.6
Silicon Dioxide SiO 2 1610-1710 2.2-2.7 1.000 -- -- ~1025 eBeam (xlnt), sputter Al 2O 3 -- n = 1.47
Silicon Nitride Si 3N 4 Sublimes 3.44 -- -- -- ~800 eBeam, sputter -- -- n ˜ 2.1
Silver Ag 961 10.49 0.529 847 958 1105 eBeam (xlnt),
Thermal (Mo boat)
Al 2O 3,
Mo
Mo,
Ta
Tin Sn 232 7.75 0.724 682 807 997 eBeam (xlnt), Thermal Al Mo  Wets Mo
Titanium Ti 1675 4.50 0.628 1067 1235 1453 eBeam (xlnt), Thermal TiC W Alloys with refractory metals.
Tungsten   W 3410   19.30 0.163 2117 2407 2757 eBeam (good), Thermal -- -- Forms violate oxides. Films hard & adherent.
Zinc Zn 419 7.14 0.514 127 177 250 eBeam (xlnt), Thermal Al 2O 3 Mo, W, Ta